Estimation of Causal Effects with a Binary Treatment Variable: A Unified M-Estimation Framework

Journal of Econometric Methods2024


In this paper, we review several estimators of the average treatment effect (ATE) that belong to three main groups: regression, weighting and doubly robust methods. We unify the exposition of these estimators within an M-estimation framework and we derive their variance estimators from the sandwich form variance-covariance matrix of the M-Estimator. Additionally, we re-estimate the causal return to higher education on earnings by the reviewed methods using the rich dataset provided by the British National Child Development Study (NCDS) as an empirical illustration.


ATE; M-estimation; treatment effects; double robustness

© 2024 by Derya Uysal.